Shapes can be filled, stroked, or both. The
stroke()commands are used to set the colors for those operations globally. In addition, most drawing commands have
strokeparameters to allow setting colors for single objects.
Fill and stroke colors can be specified in a few ways:
(red, green, blue)and
(red, green, blue, alpha)
Color objects as created by
The grayscale and RGB options take values between 0 and 1; this behavior can be changed with
Set the background color.
background(0.9) fill(1) circle(40, 40, 20)
Sets a fill color, applying it to new paths.
Stop applying fills to new paths.
Returns the fill color that was active before the nofill() call.
Set a stroke color, applying it to new paths.
This command can be used without arguments, in which case it returns the current stroke color. When used to set a color, it returns the new color value.
Stop applying strokes to new paths.
Returns the stroke color that was active before the nostroke() call.
Set the width of the stroke in new paths.
Returns the current stroke width.
stroke(0.2) strokewidth(1) line(20, 20, 20, 110) strokewidth(3) line(40, 20, 40, 110) strokewidth(10) line(60, 20, 60, 110) strokewidth(15) line(80, 20, 80, 110)
Sets a dash pattern to be used in stroked shapes.
A dash pattern is specified by dashes - a list of positive values. Each value provides the length of alternate “on” and “off” portions of the stroke.
The offset specifies an offset into the pattern at which the stroke begins.
Each “on” segment will have caps applied as if the segment were a separate sub-path. In particular, it is valid to use an “on” length of 0 with a round or square stroke cap (see
strokecap()) in order to distribute dots or squares along a path.
If the number of dashes is 0, dashing is disabled.
If the number of dashes is 1, a symmetric pattern is assumed with alternating on and off portions of the size specified by the single value in dashes.
nofill() stroke(0.2) strokewidth(3) circle(5,5,40) strokedash([3,2,1,2]) circle(55,5,40) strokedash([10,15,5]) circle(5,55,40) strokedash([10,15,5], 20) strokecap(ROUND) circle(55,55,40)
Sets the cap to be drawn at the ends of strokes.
This command can be called with a new cap value:
BUTT– start/stop the line exactly at the start/end point
ROUND– use a round ending, the center of the circle is the end point
SQUARE– use a squared ending, the center of the square is the end point
If called with no arguments, returns the current cap value.
stroke(0.2) strokewidth(15) line(25, 25, 25, 110) strokecap(ROUND) line(50, 25, 50, 110) strokecap(SQUARE) line(75, 25, 75, 110)
Sets the join shape to use be drawn at the ends of strokes.
This command can be called with a new join value:
MITER– use a sharp angled corner (default)
ROUND– use a rounded join, the center of the circle is the joint point
BEVEL– use a cut-off join, the join is cut off at half the line width from the joint point
If called with no arguments, returns the current join value.
autoclosepath(False) nofill() stroke(0.2) strokewidth(15) beginpath(10,25) lineto(40,50) lineto(10,75) endpath() translate(25,0) strokejoin(ROUND) beginpath(10,25) lineto(40,50) lineto(10,75) endpath() translate(25,0) strokejoin(BEVEL) beginpath(10,25) lineto(40,50) lineto(10,75) endpath()
Returns a Color object that can be stored in a variable and reused.
teal = color("#008080") rect(20, 20, 60, 15, fill=teal) rect(20, 40, 60, 15, fill=teal) rect(20, 60, 60, 15)
Set the current color mode, which can be RGB or HSB, and optionally the color range.
Set the numeric range for color values. By default colors range from 0.0 - 1.0, and this command can set this to a different range. For example, a scale of 0 to 255 can be set with
colorrange(255) background(127) fill(255) circle(40, 40, 20)
Sets the blending mode to apply to the colors of new elements.
Blending modes, also known as Porter-Duff compositing operations, are ways to combine two images. Usually, an image (destination) placed on top of another (destination) completely covers it; this is the OVER blending mode, but there are many others that give distinct results, and which you might know from image editors.
OVER– draw source layer on top of destination layer
MULTIPLY– source and destination layers are multiplied. This causes the result to be at least as dark as the darker inputs.
SCREEN– source and destination are complemented and multiplied. This causes the result to be at least as light as the lighter inputs.
OVERLAY– multiplies or screens, depending on the lightness of the destination color
DARKEN– replaces the destination with the source if it is darker, otherwise keeps the source
LIGHTEN– replaces the destination with the source if it is lighter, otherwise keeps the source.
COLORDODGE– brightens the destination color to reflect the source color
COLORBURN– darkens the destination color to reflect the source color
HARDLIGHT– multiplies or screens, dependent on source color
SOFTLIGHT– darkens or lightens, dependent on source color
DIFFERENCE– takes the difference of the source and destination color
EXCLUSION– produces an effect similar to difference, but with lower contrast
HUE– creates a color with the hue of the source and the saturation and luminosity of the target
SATURATION– creates a color with the saturation of the source and the hue and luminosity of the target. Painting with this mode onto a gray area produces no change.
COLOR– creates a color with the hue and saturation of the source and the luminosity of the target. This preserves the gray levels of the target and is useful for coloring monochrome images or tinting color images.
LUMINOSITY– creates a color with the luminosity of the source and the hue and saturation of the target. This produces an inverse effect to COLOR.
ATOP– draw source on top of destination content and only there
DEST– ignore the source
DEST_OVER– draw destination on top of source
DEST_ATOP– leave destination on top of source content and only there
XOR– source and destination are shown where there is only one of them
ADD– source and destination layers are accumulated
SATURATE– like over, but assuming source and dest are disjoint geometries
The Wikipedia page on blending modes is a deeper reference on how these work, and the Cairo operators page is also a good resource.
Sets the fill rule to be used in filled shapes.
The fill rule is used to determine which regions are inside or outside a complex (potentially self-intersecting) path.